Australian farmers accepted the challenge of a new crop and began commercial plantings of pistachio in the early 1980’s. Many horticultural difficulties caused delays. In the late 1990’s Australian pistachios finally became readily available. Grown under good conditions, pistachios take six years to produce the first nuts and 12 years to reach full maturity. The trees have a commercial life of over 50 years. There are about 45 Australian growers with about 950 hectares of trees planted. Most are planted along the Murray River across the borders of NSW, Victoria and South Australia but there are orchards as far north as Tamworth NSW and as far west as Western Australia. The deciduous pistachio trees need very hot summers and very cold winters to produce well. The Australian trees currently planted have the capacity to produce in an ‘on-year’ of 2,000 tonnes per annum, this is about 75% the current Australian domestic consumption. However, the consumption of pistachios in Australia is rising rapidly as consumers learn to appreciate the fine taste of this healthy fun snack food.